Selasa, 14 Mei 2013

Analisis Mengenai Perilaku Konsumen Pada Segmentasi Produk dan Tingkat Kepuasan Konsumen Terhadap Produk

Analisis Mengenai Perilaku Konsumen Pada Segmentasi Produk

Perilaku konsumen digunakan untuk mempelajari bagaimana individu, kelompok, organisasi memilih, menggunakan, membuang barang, jasa, ide, pengalaman untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dan keinginannya. Dalam perilaku konsumen sering memberikan gambaran untuk pengembangan produk, menentukan harga, saluran distribusi, pesan dan elemen bauran pemasaran lainnya. Untuk menjelaskan perilaku konsumen pelu dibangun analisis yang memadai. Model yang paling mendasar pada arus proses perilaku konsumen ini sering dikenal dengan model rangsang-tanggapan (stimulus-respons model). Stimulan merupakan masukan proses perilaku dibedakan atas rangsangan pemasaran dari perusahaan dan rangsangan dari lingkungan konsumen itu sendiri, sedangkan proses pengambilan keputusan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa factor Personal maupun Sosial konsumen. Factor personal itu sendiri meliputi motivasi, persepsi, pemahaman, kepercayaan, sikap dan kepribadian seseorang dan factor social meliputi aspek kultur, subkultur, klas social, kelompok referensi, keluarga, serta peran dan status seseorang dalam kehidupan kelompok.

Dalam mempelajari perilaku konsumen harus menganalisis beberapa segmentasi produk. Segmentasi produk sendiri adalah proses membagi-bagi produk yang semula berperilaku heterogen menjadi beberapa kelompok produk yang sekarang berperilaku lebih seragam. Secara umum tujuan dari segmentasi produk adalah untuk memperoleh bagian-bagian produk yang mempunyai karakter dan perilaku yang lebih seragam. Basis segmentasi produk untuk yang paling umum dapat digunakan adalah aspek geografis, demografis, psikografis dan perilaku.

Meliputi region, ukuran kota, tingkat kepadatan, pemukiman dan iklim

2. Demografis
Meliputi umur, ukuran keluarga, jenis kelamin, pemdapatan, pendidikan, agama, kelas social dan lain-lain

3. Psikografis
Meliputi gaya hidup, kepribadian, sikap dan persepsi

4. Perilaku
Meliputi peristiwa, keuntungan, tingkat loyalitas, tahap kesiapan pembeli, sikap terhadap produk itu sendiri

Kenapa segmentasi produk diperlukan? karena perusahaan dapat lebih baik memahami perilaku segmen-segmen pasar yang lebih homogen sehingga dapat lebih baik dalam melayani kebutuhan-kebutuhan mereka. Program pemasaran dapat lebih diarahkan sesuai dengan perilaku dan kebutuhan masing-masing segmen pasar. Apabila pasar terlalu luas dan berperilaku sangat seragam, perusahaan dapat memiliki satu atau beberapa segmen pasar saja sehingga kapasitas pasar dapat lebih sesuai dengan segmen-segmen pasar yang terbentuk.

Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan Konsumen Terhadap Produk

Konsumen atau pelanggan merupakan aset yang tidak bisa ternilai bagi sebuah usaha produk atau jasa. Hal ini disebabkan adanya konsumen sebagai pihak yang membutuhkan produk atau jasa yang ditawarkan oleh jenis usaha produk atau jasa tersebut. Untuk menciptakan kepuasan konsumen, perusahaan harus menciptakan dan mengelola suatu system untuk memperoleh konsumen/pelanggan yang lebih banyak dan kemampuan untuk mempertahankan pelanggannya. Agar produknya disenangi oleh konsumen maka produk yang dihasilkan harus maksimal dalam proses produksinya dan dibuat semenarik mungkin dalam pengemasannya.
Metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur kepuasan konsumen dapat dengan cara :
  •  Pengukuran dapat dilakukan secara langsung dengan pertanyaan.
  • Responden diberi pertanyaan mengenai seberapa besar mereka mengharapkan suatu atribut tertentu dan seberapa besar yang dirasakan.
  • Responden diminta untuk menuliskan masalah yang mereka hadapi berkaitan dengan penawaran dari perusahan dan juga diminta untuk menuliskan masalah-masalah yang mereka hadapi berkaitan dengan penawaran dari perusahan dan juga diminta untuk menuliskan perbaikan yang mereka sarankan.
  • Responden dapat diminta untuk meranking berbagai elemen dari penawaran berdasarkan derajat pentingnya setiap elemen dan seberapa baik kinerja perusahan dalam masing-masing elemen.
Faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat kepuasan konsumen terhadap produk:
  • Manfaat/khasiat yang didapat dari mengkonsumsi  produk tersebut.
  • Mudah didapat
  • Harga yang relatif terjangkau untuk semua kalangan
  • Rasa/varian yang disukai banyak orang pada umumnya

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